YTCAF Donor Program

You can make a memorial to remember a very special friend or special pet or you can honor someone or their accomplishments or just make a donation via our donor program.  You can:

  • Make a donation by check or money order, using this form, mailed to our Treasurer at:
    Gloria Lyon, Treasurer
    YTCA Foundation
    526 N West Avenue PMB 46
    Arlington, WA 98223
  • Donate by using our Pay Pal donate button
  • Donate books, figurines, art, or other goods or services of value that YTCAF can auction at our yearly auctions
  • Support our various fund raising projects

If you have any questions or would like more information or have any suggestions for how we can improve our site, please do not hesitate to contact us with those suggestions.

2011 Research Funded by YTCAF


Each year the AKC Canine Health Foundation send the YTCA Foundation a list of grant requests for funding that they have screened and think would be of interest to breeders and owners of Yorkshire Terriers as well as dog fanciers in general. As an independent entity spun off from the Parent club to preserve our tax exempt status, the YTCAF receives no financial support from the YTCA's participating in efforts such as the Purina Circles program. Instead all of our funding comes from memorials made by individual donors and fund raising efforts such as the online auctions and breeding calendar sales.

The Board members carefully considered the following factors in each request in order to optimize research dollars:

  1. Potential of the research to benefit Yorkshire Terriers in particular and all dogs in general.

  2. Previous research success of the primary investigators

  3. Use of the grant project to help veterinary students, new veterinarians and academicians get started in their chosen field of research (Acorn projects).

The Board voted to support the following CHF grants for 2011.

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MAF-D10CA - 034: Biological Variation in Cardiac Biomarkers in Healthy Dogs and Dogs with Stable Heart Disease

$3,000

Craig G. Ruaux, BVSc, PhD, DACVIM, Principal Investigator Oregon State University

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Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and other toy breeds are commonly diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Veterinarians are increasingly measuring levels of two compounds found in dogs, NT-proBNP and cardiac troponin I, to diagnose and monitor congestive heart failure. Depending on the individual dog, these compounds can change from day to day. Researchers will define several values and establish clinically meaningful changes in levels of these two compounds. Then they will determine if these levels are lower in dogs with heart disease than in healthy dogs. If so, it would mean that veterinarians could use values derived from dogs with heart disease to monitor patients with heart disease, rather than relying on baseline values from healthy dogs. This study has the potential to modify the way in which these compounds are used to diagnose and monitor dogs with cardiac disease and could increase their usefulness for noninvasive monitoring.

UPDATE APRIL 23, 2012

Toy breeds are commonly diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Veterinarians are increasingly measuring levels of the cardiac markers NT-proBNP and Toponin-I to diagnose and monitor progression of this condition. However, depending on the individual dog, levels of these cardiac markers can change from day to day. In order to establish a more clinically meaningful diagnostic tool, researchers from Oregon State University are studying the variations in these two markers in dogs with differing degrees of heart disease. To date, researchers have completed enrollment and sampling of healthy (control) dogs and have collected 2/3 of the blood samples needed for the study from dogs with stable cardiac disease. Statistical analysis will be performed once all samples have been collected from both study groups. Preliminary results are expected alter this fall. Information from this study will establish critical “cut-off” values of both NT-proBNP and Troponin-I in dogs with mild and moderate congestive heart failure. This study has the potential to modify the way in which these compounds are used to diagnose and monitor dogs with cardiac disease and could provide a low-cost, non-invasive diagnostic method, possibly decreasing the reliance on more expensive cardiac ultrasound examinations.

UPDATE NOVEMBER 8, 2011

Veterinarians are increasingly measuring levels of the cardiac markers NT-proBNP and cardiac Troponin I to diagnose and monitor congestive heart failure. However, depending on the individual dog, levels of these cardiac markers can change from day to day. In order to establish a more clinically meaningful diagnostic tool, researchers from Oregon State University are studying the variations in the two markers in dogs with differing degrees of heart disease. To date, researchers have completed enrollment and sampling of healthy (control) dogs and are in the process of enrolling and sampling dogs with cardiac disease. Statistical analysis will be performed once all samples have been collected from the two patient study groups (healthy dogs and dogs with cardiac disease). Information from this study will establish critical “cut-off” values of both NT-proBNP and Cardiac Troponin-I in dogs with mild and moderate congestive heart failure. This study has the potential to modify the way in which these compounds are used to diagnose dogs with cardiac disease and could provide a low-cost, non-invasive diagnostic method, possibly decreasing the reliance on more expensive cardiac ultrasound examinations.

Oregon State letter

Use of BNP Plasma Concentration as a Diagnostic Marker in Dogs That May Have Possible Heart Failure

$3,000

Elizabeth Gettinger, BS, Animal Science (Research Student)
T.C. DeFrancesco, DVM, board certified Veterinary Cardiologist
North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine

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This grant is funding Elizabeth Gettinger’s summer research position with Dr. Terri DeFrancesco, Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences. Dr. De Francesco is a board certified Veterinary Cardiologist who is currently studying the use of BNP plasma concentrations as a diagnostic marker in dogs who may have possible heart failure. BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) is a protein that in found in humans with heart failure and provides a non-invasive indication of the severity of the condition. Dr. DeFrancesco’s study will help determine if this same chemical found in the bloodstream can be used in dogs. This would be an important test because heart disease affects approximately 10 percent of dogs in the U.S. and is the second most common cause of death. In our own YTCAF Health Survey, 12.6 percent of Yorkshire Terriers breeders reported having dogs with heart disease. The use of a non-invasive blood test will make cardiac care more affordable for the average owner or breeder and will not cause the dogs the distress or pain of traditionally invasive tests.

UPDATE – 8-26-11

To view update on the grant go to Express Article for December 2011

Rabies Challenge Fund

$1,000

W. Jean Dodds, DVM, Hemopet and Ronald Schultz, DVM University of Wisconsin

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Many states have changed their Rabies laws since the Rabies Challenge began. For this program to continue and more state laws to change to less frequent vaccination protocol, we much continue to meet the “challenge”. An anonymous donor has again pledged a $10,000 match for every dollar given to the Rabies Challenge. The Foundation again continued their support of the worthwhile cause by contributing another $1,000. So far the Foundation has contributed $6,500 (including the matching funds) since 2007. In the end, all dogs should benefit from this study.

Rabies Challenge letter from Dr. Dodds
Rabies Challenge letter from Dr. Schultz

MAF D09CA – 405 Enrichment for Canine Cancer Stem Cells by In Vitro Manipulation and Chemotherapy

$3,000

Fellowship Training Grant

Aric M. Frantz, CVM, ACCR (DVM/PhD combined candidate)
Principal Investigator
University of Minnesota

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Cancer therapy for dogs has become more common, but treatment doesn’t always lead to long-term remission, and some therapies have debilitating side effects. A major reason for failure of conventional treatments may be their inability to eradicate cancer stem cells. These cells are self-renewing, can spread to new areas of the body and can give rise to daughter cells, which can rapidly divide. This means that even one cancer stem cell left behind after treatment can cause the cancer to return. Cancer stem cells appear to be less susceptible to traditional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy. Researchers will study cancer stem cells to help them develop therapeutic strategies that target these cells and generate new, more effective treatment approaches with fewer side effects for dogs with cancer.

UPDATE 11-1-11

One of the main reasons why cancer therapies fail may be because of the existence of highly resistant cells in tumors called cancer stem cells. Researchers at the University of Minnesota are working to understand the genetics of cancer stem cells in three canine cancers: hemangiosarcoma (cancer of blood vessel-forming cells), osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and glioblastoma multiforms (brain tumors). To achieve their goals, the scientists developed methods to maintain these cells in the laboratory and used the most contemporary technology to study their molecular properties. Their results show for the first time that cancer stem cells exist in canine hemangiosarcoma and confirm the existence of these cells in osteosarcoma and glioblastoma. Further, their results suggest that cancer stem cells are not alike in every tumor, although they may share essential properties that allow for potential targeted therapies which could benefit a majority of patients with these diseases. This Fellowship Training Grant has provided valuable training and career development opportunities for a future cancer researcher.

UPDATE 4-25-11

Success of anticancer therapies is currently gauged by how much the tumor shrinks, but in some cases. Therapy fails because it doesn’t destroy rare and special cells called cancer stem cells. These cells can spread to new areas of the body and can give rise to new tumors. Thus, leaving behind even one cancer stem cell after treatment can result in cancer recurrence. Researchers from the University of Minnesota are looking at the genetic signatures of cancer stem cells from three canine cancers: hemangiosarcoma (cancer of blood vessel-forming cells), osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and glioblastoma multiforme (brain tumors). They have identified a common cell culture system for all three tumor types that allows the researchers to propagate cells with specific features of cancer stem cells, including greater resistance to chemotherapy drugs. To date, preliminary work has generated evidence that the enriched subset of cells in hemangiosarcoma (potential cancer stem cells) is less sensitive to certain chemotherapy drugs, such as Paclitaxel, that prevent cell division. However, researchers found that not every tumor shows this same behavior. Researchers continue to enrich the cells from cultures of all three cancers with the aim of generating sufficient biological material to study shared genetic properties of cancer stem cell subpopulations of hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma and glioblastoma multiforme. Targeting cancer stem cells requires understanding what is unique about them. If researchers can successfully identify shared genetic signatures in the three types of cancer stem cells, the discovery will lead to better treatment strategies for canine cancers. This Fellowship Training Grant is providing valuable hands-on training for a future cancer researcher.

University of Minnesota letter
University of Minnesota letter page 2

MAF D09CA-082: Potential Drug Therapy for Lymphoma (D/C Because of Toxicity)

$3,000

Laura D. Garrett, DVM, DACVIM, Principal Investigator

University of Illinois

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Details

Lymphoma is one of the most common and fatal cancers in dogs. Most dogs treated with chemotherapy go into remission, but the cancer eventually recurs and frequently develops resistance to the chemotherapy. One of the characteristics that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells is the cancer cell’s ability to avoid apoptosis (pronounced “a-po-toe-sis”), that is, programmed cell death. Apoptosis occurs throughout life and is critical for maintaining healthy tissue, but cancer cells develop ways to block apoptosis, which allows them to multiply in an uncontrolled fashion. Researchers from the University of Illinois studied a novel compound, procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1), which was developed at the university. PAC-1 works via a different mechanism than traditional chemotherapy, and based on preliminary data, held promise as a revolutionary treatment for dogs with cancer. However, early study results indicated that the drug can cause severe and unpredictable neurotoxicity in dogs at the levels needed to produce an anticancer effect and, therefore, should not be pursued as a treatment for canine lymphoma. These finds also indicate the need for safer formulations of similar drugs currently in development.

FINAL REPORT 6-17-12

RESULTS: Novel Anticancer drug determined to be unsafe due to severe toxicity in a dog in this clinical trial, therefore, study was discontinued. As a result, the funding for this grant was directed to MAF D12CA-026.

MAF D12CA-026: Development of a CD20-Specific Antibody Fragment for Targeted Therapy of Canine B-Cell Lymphoma

$3,000

Nicola J. Mason, B Vet Med, PhD,
University of Pennsylvania

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Details

Blood cell lymphomas affect about 30 dogs in every 100,000. Diffuse B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common type affecting dogs and is similar to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans. Current treatment induces remission in about 75 percent of patients but the majority relapse and the lymphoma is drug resistant within six to nine months of diagnosis. In human medicine a drug called Rituximab is used to treat various types of lymphoma. The researchers in this study will work to develop a drug similar to Rituximab that works on canine lymphoma patients. The results of this work could lead to the development of the first targeted treatment of canine B-cell lymphoma and may significantly improve the outcome for dogs with B-cell lymphomas.

UPDATE 1-15-13

Lymphoma affects about 30 of every 100,000 dogs. Although the current treatment regimen of multiple chemotherapy drugs induces remission in about 75 percent of patients, most dogs ultimately relapse within six to nine months of diagnosis. Rituximab, an antibody-targeting drug, has substantially improved survival times for people with various type of B-cell lymphoma. However, rituximab cannot be used in dogs because it does not recognize canine B-cells and is rapidly destroyed by the dog’s immune system. The researchers at the University of Pennsylvania are developing a novel system to identify canine-derived antibody fragments similar to rituximab that will recognize canine cancer cells. So far, they have successfully generated cells that produce a specific canine molecule similar to the molecule that rituximab targets in humans. Researchers are now screening for canine antibody fragments that will bind tightly to these cells. Development of a canine-derived antibody fragment could produce targeted delivery of cell-killing agents to the malignant B-cells thereby allowing for increased chemotherapy doses, reduced side effects and improved outcome for dogs with B-cell lymphoma.

MAF D09CA-037 Elimination of Inflammation and Lens Capsular Opacity After Cataract Surgery in Dogs

$3,000

Brian C. Gilger, DVM, MS, Principal Investigator
North Carolina State University

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Details

Cataract surgery is one of the most common ocular surgeries performed in dogs. While this surgery improves the quality of life for many dogs, others have continued complications, such as persistent inflammation and development of cloudiness, or “after-cataract.” Dogs often require long-term and frequent use of eyedrop medications to help prevent complications. Researchers will determine the effectiveness of a novel method of releasing celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory medication shown to decrease ocular inflammation and prevent after-cataract. If successful, this unique method will provide sustained, effective therapy that doesn’t require giving frequent eyedrops. This postsurgical treatment option would greatly improve the success of cataract surgery in dogs.

UPDATE 2-21-13

Results: New Drug-Releasing Lenses Reduce Eye Cloudiness in Dogs After Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is one of the most common eye surgeries that dogs undergo. Though it improves the quality of life for many dogs, the surgery can have complications such as persistent inflammation and the development of cloudiness over the eye, a condition known as posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Researchers at North Carolina State University have tested the effectiveness of a new method of sustained ocular release of celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory drug that decreases inflammation and reduces the incidence of PCO. The researchers first successfully demonstrated in the laboratory that the use of celecoxib-releasing intraocular lenses administered sufficient amounts of celecoxib to inhibit the formation of PCO. Based on this success, they then evaluated its effectiveness in dogs that had undergone cataract surgery. They learned that the celecoxib-releasing lenses are well tolerated by patients and significantly reduced PCO development at six and 12 months after surgery. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether this method will also effectively prevent PCO in horses and cats.

The results of this study will change the way canine cataract patients are managed after surgery and will help improve outcomes and minimize complications. Breeds with a high incidence of cataracts, SUCH AS Miniature Poodles, American Cocker Spaniels, Boston Terrier and Miniature Schnauzers, will greatly benefit from this work.

UPDATE 4-5-12

Cataract surgery is one of the most common eye surgeries performed on dogs. Though it improves the quality of life for many dogs, the surgery can have complications, including persistent inflammation and the development of cloudiness over the eye, a condition called posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Researchers at North Carolina State University have tested the effectiveness of a new method of sustained ocular release of celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory drug that has been shown to decrease inflammation and reduce the incidence of PCO. Because celecoxib is an anti-inflammatory medication, researchers also expect its use will result in better pain control after surgery. The researchers have successfully demonstrated in the laboratory the use of celecoxib-releasing intraocular lenses to administer sufficient amounts of drug to inhibit the formation of PCO. Based on this information, they then evaluated its effectiveness in dogs that have undergone cataract surgery. Recruitment and enrollment of dogs into this clinical trial is now complete and researchers are completing post-surgery follow-up of patients for their final data analysis. Preliminary results are encouraging as the drug-releasing lenses have been well tolerated by patients and there has been no evidence of adverse effects. The results of this study will change the way cataract patients are managed after surgery and will simplify treatment, thereby improving outcomes and minimizing complications. Breeds with a high incidence of cataracts, including Miniature Poodles, American Cocker Spaniels, Boston Terriers and Miniature Schnauzers, will greatly benefit from this work.

North Carolina State University letter

UPDATE 12-5-11

Cataract surgery is one of the most common eye surgeries performed on dogs. Though it improves the quality of life for many dogs, the surgery can have complications, including persistent inflammation and development of cloudiness, a condition called posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Researchers at North Carolina State University have tested the effectiveness of a new method of sustained ocular release of celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory drug that has been shown to decrease inflammation and eliminate PCO. Because celecoxib is an anti-inflammatory medication, researchers also expect its use will result in better pain control after surgery. Funded by Morris Animal Foundation, researchers have successfully demonstrated in the laboratory the use of celecoxib-releasing intraocular lenses to administer sufficient amounts of drug to inhibit the formation of PCO and they are currently testing its effectiveness in dogs undergoing cataract surgery. Enrollment of client-owned dogs is almost complete and the plan is to monitor these patients for one year after surgery. Follow-up of all patients is expected to be completed by mid-2012. Preliminary results are encouraging as the drug-releasing lenses have been well tolerated by the first patients and there has been no evidence of adverse effects. The results of this study will change the way cataract patients are managed after surgery and will simplify treatment, thereby improving outcomes and minimizing complications. Breeds with a high incidence of cataracts, including Miniature Poodles, American Cocker Spaniels, Boston Terriers and Miniature Schnauzers, will greatly benefit from this work.

UPDATE 4-25-11

Cataract surgery is one of the most common eye surgeries performed in dogs. Thought it improves the quality of like for many dogs, the surgery can have complications, including persistent inflammation and the development of cloudiness, a condition called posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Researchers t North Carolina State University have tested the effectiveness of a new method of sustained ocular release of celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory drug that has been shown to decrease inflammation and eliminate PCO. To date, they have successfully demonstrated in the laboratory the use of celecoxib-releasing intraocular lenses to administer sufficient amounts of drug to inhibit the formation of PCO. This is an excellent method for drug delivery to the eye and can be practically and easily used during surgery. Researchers are now enrolling client-owned dogs undergoing cataract surgery to determine the effectiveness of celecoxib in reducing inflammation and PCO cloudiness. Because celecoxib is an anti-inflammatory medication, researchers expect its use will result in better control of inflammation and less pain after surgery. Researchers will then monitor these patients for one year after surgery. In preliminary observations, the drug-releasing lenses have been well tolerated by the first few patients, and there has been no evidence of adverse effects. The results of this study will change the way cataract patients are managed after surgery and will simplify treatment, thereby improving outcomes and minimizing complications. Breeds with a high incidence of cataracts, including Miniature Poodles, American Cocker Spaniels, Boston Terriers and Miniature Schnauzers, will greatly benefit from this work.

CHF 0945: Mucosal Gene Expression Profiles in Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease

$2,500

Albert E. Jergens, DVM, PhD, Principal Investigator

Iowa State University

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Details

Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disorder likely resulting from the interaction between genes and environmental factors. While it is generally accepted that liminal bacteria play a critical role in provoking gut inflammation, genetic factors may also contribute to the bacterial-driven inflammatory response. Several susceptibility genes, such as NOD2/CARD15, have recently been identified in humans with IBD and provide a basis for the development of aberrant immune responses to bacteria in certain individuals. It is reasonable to hypothesize that susceptibility genes also affect clinical disease in dogs with IBD by negatively affecting the interaction with intestinal bacteria and/or their products. Genetic factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of canine IBD as in humans. A role for liminal bacteria is suggested by observations that antibiotics reduce clinical signs, and by reports of increased bacterial numbers in intestinal biopsy specimens obtained from dogs with IBD. Given the recognized breed predispositions, genetic susceptibility to IBD is also likely, although studies are lacking.

Objective: The researchers are utilizing unique molecular biology tools to: (1) identify key genetic factors contributing to disease expression, (2) characterize gene expression profiles which may predict responsiveness to specific therapies, and (3) provide the framework upon which to facilitate identification of IBD susceptibility genes that predispose specific canine breeds to clinical disease.

UPDATE 5-7-12

Based on the above objectives the researchers are making good progress towards these goals as evidenced by the following:

  • We have collected samples from a representative heterogeneous population of 18 IBD dogs for comparison to 6 healthy dog tissues.
  • We have carefully extracted the genetic material (RNA) from endoscopic samples which will be used in our gene profiling studies.
  • We have now evaluataed gene expression profiles in the normal versus diseased dog groups using sophisticated statistical modeling to help us "tease out" gene expression patterns which discern healthy versus diseased intestinal tissues. It is our expectation to identify specific genes which serve as biomarkers for diagnosing canine IBD and for monitoring the effects of therapy. We have now identified a grouping of 17 "marker" genes that may be more critically assessed in future studies.
  • We have noted the IBD dogs show differences in intestinal gene expression as compared to healthy dogs; and these differences in expression may help to explain the mechanisms of chronic inflammation in affected dogs.
  • We have prelimary evidence that changes in the intestinal bacteria accompany the abnormal gene patterns. It is our belief that this association should be explored more fully with additional studies; since this situation is identical to the association between people and their intestinal bacterial populations causing human IBD (i.e., Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis).
  • We have now confirmed the expression patterns of select differentially expressed genes in diseased dogs using sophisticated molecular techniques. This suggests that the observations regarding gene expression patterns using the gene chips are accurate.
  • We have now completed data analysis and have a second publication submitted to PLOS One entitled "16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals bacterial dysbiosis in the duodenum of dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease."

UPDATE 12-31-11

Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disorder likely resulting from the interaction between genes and environmental factors. We propose to utilize unique molecular biology tools to: (1) identify key genetic factors contributing to disease expression, (2) characterize gene expression profiles which may predict responsiveness to specific therapies, and (3) provide the framework upon which to facilitate identification of IBD susceptibility genes that predispose specific canine breeds to clinical disease. We are making good progress towards these goals as evidenced by the following:

  • We have collected samples from a representative heterogeneous population of 18 IBD dogs for comparison to 6 healthy dog tissues.
  • We have carefully extracted the genetic material (RNA) from endoscopic samples which will be used in our gene profiling studies
  • We have now evaluated gene expression profiles in the normal versus diseased dog groups using sophisticated statistical modeling to help us ‘tease out’ gene expression patterns which discern healthy versus diseased intestinal tissues. It is our expectation to identify specific genes which serve as biomarkers for diagnosing canine IBD and for monitoring the effects of therapy. We have now identified a grouping of 17 ‘marker’ genes that may be more critically assessed in future studies.
  • We have noted the IBD dogs show differences in intestinal gene expression as compared to healthy dogs; and these differences in expression may help to explain the mechanisms of chronic inflammation in affected dogs.
  • We have preliminary evidence that changes in the intestinal bacteria accompany the abnormal gene patters. It is our belief that this association should be explored more fully with additional studies; since this situation is identical to the association between people and their intestinal bacterial populations causing human IBD (i.e., Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis).
  • We have now confirmed the expression patterns of select differentially expressed genes in diseased dogs using sophisticated molecular techniques. This suggests that the observations regarding gene expression patterns using the gene chips are accurate.
  • We have now completed data analysis and have a second publication submitted to PLOS One entitled “16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals bacterial dysbiosis in the duodenum of dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease”.

UPDATE 6-30-11

The objective of this study is to characterize mucosal gene expression patterns mediating intestinal inflammation in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE). Eighteen dogs diagnosed with CD and 6 health control (HC) doges were evaluated. Mucosal biopsies of the small intestine were obtained endoscopically from all dogs. Disease severity in CE dogs was defined and stratified based on clinical (CIBDAI scores) and histologic findings. Total RNA extracted from intestinal biopsies was analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome 2.0 arrays comprising 43,000 probe sets. Gene expression profiles were compared between HC and CE dogs. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm the microarray data. Results indicate that a total of 1875 transcripts were differentially expressed between CE and HCC dogs. 1582 (85%) transcripts in CE dogs were down regulated which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowl disease (IBD). Another 293 transcripts were up-regulated and included genes related to extracellular matrix degradation, inflammation, iron transport, and immunity. CE dogs were protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) showed the greatest number of differentially expressed marker genes as compared to less severely diseased dogs. Gene expression patterns were confirmed with qRT-PCR studies. The coordinated activity of multiple genes regulating mucosal inflammation is markedly altered in dogs with CE and varies by disease phenotype. Moreover, the differential expression of select genes suggests that the molecular pathogenesis of canine CE bears resemblance to chronic intestinal inflammation in human IBD.

CHF Grant 1312: Association Mapping Study of Legg-Calves-Perthes Disease in West Highland White Terrier, Yorkshire Terrier, and Miniature Pinscher

$2,500

Keith E. Murphy, PhD and Alison Starr-Moss, PhD
Clemson University

This is a continuation from 2010 with additional funding. More information can be found in the initial report on the 2010 Grants page.