YTCAF Donor Program

You can make a memorial to remember a very special friend or special pet or you can honor someone or their accomplishments or just make a donation via our donor program.  You can:

  • Make a donation by check or money order, using this form, mailed to our Treasurer at:
    Gloria Lyon, Treasurer
    YTCA Foundation
    526 N West Avenue PMB 46
    Arlington, WA 98223
  • Donate by using our Pay Pal donate button
  • Donate books, figurines, art, or other goods or services of value that YTCAF can auction at our yearly auctions
  • Support our various fund raising projects

If you have any questions or would like more information or have any suggestions for how we can improve our site, please do not hesitate to contact us with those suggestions.

Express Updates

October 2010 Express Article


Discussion on the Seminar given by Jerold S. Bell, DVM: "Yorkshire Terrier Pedigree Analysis"

Jacqueline "Jackie" Spencer, BA, MS
Assistant Professor of Biology, Thomas Nelson Community College and YTCA Foundation Board Member


On a snowy Thursday, February 11, 2010, the YTCA Foundation sponsored a Genetics Seminar before the Specialties in New York City. Dr. Jerold S. Bell, DVM, Clinical Associate Professor of Genetics, Dept. of Clinical Services at Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, made a two-part presentation. Part I covered the topic of Yorkshire Terrier Pedigree Analysis, while Part II was on Genetic Disease of the Yorkie. A DVD of the seminar is available from Show Dog Video Pros. $10 of every purchase is donated to the YTCAF.

Part I of Dr. Bell's presentation was based on a previous analysis of Gordon Setters. This original paper has been updated several times and may be read on the Sirius Dog website. Using pedigree information provided by current Yorkshire Terrier breeders, Dr. Bell analyzed pedigrees of individual dogs to determine the Inbreeding Coefficient (also called the Wright's coefficient). This percentage represents an educated estimate of how many pairs of genes are identical, e.e. homozygous, because they have been inherited from common ancestors. The more frequently common ancestors may be found in extended pedigrees (>5 generations), the higher the inbreeding coefficient and thus the more likely that a particular gene will be expressed, i.e. show up in the progeny of a breeding.

In order to understand how traits are transmitted between parents and progeny, we need to remember how the individual genes carrying those breed specific traits are shuffled, sorted and transmitted during a breeding.While each individual dog carries two sets of chromosomes (one from its sire and one from its dam), the integrity of these chromosomes is often not maintained during formation of sperm and eggs via the process of meisosis. We now know that sets of genes may be exchanged between the chromosomal pairs via a process known as "crossing over." Coupling this with the Mendelian concept of Independent Assortment of genes during gamete (sperm and egg) development shows that a lot of genetic variability may be introduced through new gene combinations in the offspring. So trying to introduce more identical pairs of genes from parents, grandparents, etc., increases the likelihood that this source of variation will be reduced in a given puppy. Thus the offspring of such a breeding will look more like their ancestors and carry the desirable breed specific traits.

As Dr. Bell pointed out, since many of the genes that make up the species Canis familiaris are "fixed" (i.e. needed for every breed of dog), there is only a small subset of genes that produce a unique breed like the Yorkshire Terrier. This has been accomplished through selective breeding over many generations. By trying to stack the deck with as many homozygous or identical genes as possible through careful line breeding, breeders are more likely to produce the "typey" Yorkshire Terrier that they are looking for.

For more information on Dr. Bell's genetic research, go to the YTCA Foundation website. Five of Dr. Bell's published articles on topics such as Genetic Testing, Canine Hip Dysplasia, Liver Shunt, Pedigree Analysis and Breeding Strategies are available. Additionally there is a lot more information posted on the YTCAF website about terms used in genetics as well as other information. Part II of Dr. Bell's Seminar will be covered in a future article.

Reaching for the Stars

This is a new feature placed on the YTCAF website to thank and honor those who have donated to the YTCAF. Many do not realize that our only sources of incomeused to fund research grants and educational programs come from funds raised in our annual auction and individual donations. Levels of monetary donations are noted with the color-coded stars. Remember, donations are tax-deductible - we appreciate all those who are helping out!

Get to Know the Foundation Board:

  • Mary Trimble, VA, President
  • Doreen Hubbard, WA, Vice President
  • Sharon McCadam, WA, Secretary
  • Deloras Maas, Treasurer
  • Linda Grimm, Director
  • Suzette Heider, FL, Director
  • Ladonna Reno, MO, Director
  • Gloria Bloch Robinson, FL, Director
  • Jacqueline Spencer, VA, Director


July 2010 Express Article

"The Pathway for Future Generations"

As you know, the Foundation has been a supporter of the Rabies Challenge since 2008. So far, we have contributed $3,500* to this effort. The rabies vaccine is one of the most deadly of veterinary immunizations. Since the Rabies Challenge began, several states have changed their laws and now allow the three year vaccine as opposed to the annual immunization. The Foundation received an invitation to attend the Safer Pet Vaccination and Health Care seminar given by Rabies Challenge founders, Dr. Dods and Dr. Schultz, held near San Diego, CA. Since no one on the Board lived close to the site of the seminar, we asked long time Foundation supported and former YTCA President, Janet Jackson, if she would attend in our behalf. Below is her report on the seminar which will also appear in the June AKC Gazette.


On March 28 I attended the Safer Pet Vaccination and Health Care seminar in Del Mar, California on behalf of the Yorkshire Terrier Club of America Foundation, Inc., a 501(c)3 corporation benefitting Yorkshire Terriers. Speakers were Dr. Jean Dodds, who consults nationally and internationally on hematology, immunology, endocrinology and holistic medicine, along with Dr. Ron Schultz, US Representative of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association Vaccination Guidelines Group and Board Member of the 2003 and 2006 American Animal Hospital Association Task FOrces and the AAFP Feline Task Force. Dr. Schultz has been working on vaccines since the 1960's and is currently in his fourth year working on the "Rabies Challenge" study.

This seminar and fund raiser was well attended with a diverse audience including veterinarians, breeders, rescue workers, and pet owners. Vets and vet techs were allowed 6 hours of continuing education credit. This is a worthwhile cause since it has now been proven that our dogs and cats do develop lasting immunity from puppy and young adult vaccinations, but only through these scientific studies will we be able to have enough proof to change existing laws. Dr. Schultz also stressed that our veterinary colleges are behind on immunology teaching to new veterinarians and that this is an area that needs a lot of improvement. He also stressed that if one's veterinarian is not open to discuss new vaccine protocols, it might be time to find a new vet!

Some interesting highlights of the seminar would include: All puppies need their core vaccines, CDV, CDV-2, CAV-2 plus the rabies vaccine. The rabies vaccine should not be given sooner that 2 weeks after the last puppy shot. The last puppy shot should be at around 16 weeks. The recommended protocol can be found at A one year booster is recommended unless you do a titer test. Both Dr.'s do not seem to recommend any extra vaccinations such as lepto or Lyme disease unless it is a problem in your particular area. These killed vaccines do not provide permanent immunity as do the core vaccines. Our dogs also develop their own immunities as they grow older due to exposure. A dog can become infected and we might not even know it as there is a difference in becoming infected and actually having the disease. For instance, one might give the intranasal bordetella vaccine to young show dogs but they should develop their own immunity due to exposure as they mature.

A vaccine will not cause an autoimmune response but can trigger one in a genetically predisposed animal. These animals must be carefully monitored and any future vaccines may cause more reactions or further damage. They should not be bred. Interestingly though, neutered animals are more prone to vaccine reactions than those that are sexually intact.

Please take the Foundation 'challenge' and go visit our updated website at We welcome your comments.


Mary Trimble, VA, President; Doreen Hubbard, WA, Vice President; Sharon McCadam, WA, Secretary; Deloras Maas, Treasurer; Linda Grimm, Director; Suzette Heider, FL, Director; Ladonna Reno, MO, Director; Gloria Bloch Robinson, FL, Director; Jacqueline Spencer, VA, Director

*In light of the 'challenge' offered at the seminar to match any donations received, the Foundation has contributed an additional $500 to this worthwhile cause. Our contribution will be matched dolar for dollar increasing our total contribution to $4,000 (plus the matchin $500) to equal $4,500. Thank you, Janet, for attending the seminar and so graciously agreeing to submit your report.


February 2010 Express

News from the YTCA Foundation

As we move into another decade, the Foundation continues to work for better health and a better future for our Yorkies. In January, we provided funding support for a new Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD) study being conducted by Dr. Keith Murphy, PhD., Chair of the Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, and Dr. Alison Starr, PhD., Research Assistant Professor, both of Clemson University in South Carolina.

LCPD is a bone disease in which the head and neck of the femur (thight bone) die due to lack of blood supply. Either the left or right leg may be affected, or both. It is termed a developmental disease because it is usually seen in young dogs (4-11 months of age) and affected breeds are usually toys or miniatures. Yorkshire Terriers are among the affected breeds. The disease is thought to be caused in part by genetics with bot parents contributing a recessive gene. Since either sex may be affected, the mode of transmission is thought to be autosomal recessive. The role of other environmental factors is as yet unclear.

Young dogs who are afflicted usually demonstrate pain, lameness and or wasting of the muscle at the hip joint. Treatment requires costly surgical intervention via removal of the femoral head or total hip replacement ($1,000-5,000 minimum cost). LCPD is a condition that has proved difficult to either predict or prevent. Thus finding the cause of LCPD will benefit breeders, owners and the affected dogs alike.

Drs. Murphy and Starr hope to identify the affected genes using DNA analysis and sequencing via 50 blood samples donated from affected pets (25) and normal (25) Yorkshire Terriers in the United States, Canada, and other countries around the world. Their ultimate goal is to develop a genetics test that would identify both affected individuals and carriers so that they could be excluded from breeding programs.

Purina made LCPD and the grant of Drs. Murphy and Starr the subject of their latest Yorkshire Terrier edition of the Purina Pro Newsletter. Please read this informative information under our education sub-heading.

The seminar that the Foundation sponsored in New York was outstanding. Unfortunately, the weather didn't cooperate and attendance was limited. Dr. Bell's seminar reflected his study of over 35,000 Yorkshire Terriers in the database and included an in-depth analysis of some of the most influential Yorkshire Terrier Sires and Dams in our breed. His research used 10 generations and beyond to find those dogs that are influencing much of what we see in our Yorkshire Terriers of today. His explanations found the attendees attentive to his discovery of how the popular sires of the past are apparent in the Yorkshire Terriers in the 21st Century. This was an eye-opening seminar every serious student of the breed will find of great interest with fascinating information. Health testing is lacking in our breed and Dr. Bell encouraged testing while our breed is relatively untouched as some breeds are with the popular sire syndrome that can devastate a breed when a disorder is ignored or goes undiscovered by lack of testing (eye CERFs is an example, which are relatively inexpensive). Since the seminar in New York, the response on order this video has been overwhelming. Many people have already received this DVD. We wanted to share with you one of the emails we just received from someone who ordered the video:

Dr. Bells seminar was packed with good information. Anyone who takes the time to really study his seminar will undoubtedly become a better breeder.

Our website contains information on how to order this vidoe, or you can contact Dr. Krukenkamp directly at

We are also please to announce that the Board has unanimously re-elected Jacqueline Spencer to a three-year term as a member of the Board of Directors. Jackie has proven to be a very valuable addition to our expanded board because of her education, on the job experience, and she is also a breeder of both Yorkie and Maltese. Jackie is very familiar with the grant process and with many of the researchers and their credentials and veterinary affiliations. We feel privileged that she has agreed to continue to serve on the Foundation Board.